General Site Information
Site_id:US-Wkg
Site_name:Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands
Tower_team:PI: Russell Scott - russ.scott@ars.usda.gov - United States Department of Agriculture
Latitude:31.7365
Longitude:-109.9419
Elevation(m):1531
NetworkAmeriFlux
IGBP:GRA (Grasslands)
Climate_Koeppen:Bsk (Steppe: warm winter)
Mean Annual Temp (degrees C):15.64
Mean Annual Precip. (mm):407
Years Of Data Available:Ameriflux: 12 (Duration: 2004 - 2015)
FLUXNET: 3 (Duration: 2004 - 2006)
Description:This site is located in a small, intensively-studied, experimental watershed within USDA-ARS's Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance measurements of energy, water and CO2 fluxes began in the spring of 2004, though meteorological (including Bowen ratio) and hydrological measurements are available much further back.
Acknowledgment:
Site image(s):
VE Cutouts:Max Zoom :: Mid 1 Zoom :: Mid 2 Zoom :: Min Zoom

Papers relevant to understanding the site
BibliographyUsage
Scott, R.L., Biederman, J.A., Hamerlynck, E.P. and Barron-Gafford, G.A. 2015. The carbon balance pivot point of southwestern U.S. semiarid ecosystems: Insights from the 21st century drought. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120, 2612-2624.Reference
Scott, R.L., Hamerlynck, E.P., Jenerette, G.D., Moran, M.S., and Barron-Gafford, G. 2010. Carbon dioxide exchange in a semidesert grassland through drought-induced vegetation change. 2010. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 115, G03026. doi:10.1029/2010JG001348.Primary_Citation
Li, F., Kustas, W.P., Anderson, M.A., Prueger, J.H., and Scott, R.L. 2008. Effect of remote sensing spatial resolution on interpreting tower-based flux observations. Remote Sensing and the Environment, 112, 337-349.Reference
Polyakov, V.O., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Hamerlynck, E.P., Nichols, M.H., Holifield Collins, C.D., and Scott, R.L. 2010. Runoff and erosional responses to a drought-induced shift in a desert grassland community composition. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 115, G04027, doi:10.1029/2010JG001386Reference
William E. Emmerich (2007) Ecosystem Water Use Efficiency in a Semiarid Shrubland and Grassland Community. Rangeland Ecology & Management: September 2007, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 464-470.Reference
Hamerlynck, E.P., Scott, R.L., and Barron-Gafford, G.A. 2013. Consequences of cool-season drought-induced plant mortality to Chihuahuan Desert grassland ecosystem and soil respiration dynamics. Ecosystems, 16, 1178-1191. doi:10.1007/s10021-013-9675-y.Reference
Krishnan, P., Meyers, T.P., Scott, R.L., Kennedy, L., and Heuer, M. 2012. Energy exchange and evapotranspiration over two temperate semi-arid grasslands in North America. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 153, 31-44., doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.09.017.Reference
Biederman, J.A., Scott, R.L., Goulden, M.L., Vargas, R., Litvak, M.E., Kolb, T.E., Yepez, E.A., Oechel, W.C., Blanken, P.D., Bell, T.W., Garatuza-Payan, J., Maurer, G.E., Dore, S. and Burns, S.P. 2016. Terrestrial carbon balance in a drier world: the effects of water availability in southwestern North America. Global Change Biology, 22, 1867-1879.Reference
Moran, M.S., Scott, R.L., Hamerlynck, E.P., Green, K.N., Emmerich, W.E., and Holifield Collins, C.D. 2009. Soil evaporation response to Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) invasion in a semiarid watershed. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 2133-2142.Reference
Moran, M.S., Scott, R.L., Keefer, T.O., Emmerich, W.E., Hernandez, M., Nearing, G.S., Paige, G., Cosh, M.H., and O’Neill, P.E. 2009. Partitioning evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems using time series of soil surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 59-72.Reference
Emmerich, William E. "Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 116.1 (2003): 91-102.Reference
Scott, R.L. 2010. Using watershed water balance to evaluate the accuracy of eddy covariance evaporation measurements for three semiarid ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 219-225. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.002.Reference
Blonquist, J.M., Jr., Montzka, S.A., Munger, J.W., Yakir, D., Desai, A.R., Dragoni, D., Griffis, T.J., Monson, R.K., Scott, R.L., and Bowling, D.R. 2011. The potential of carbonyl sulfide as a proxy for gross primary production at flux tower sites. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 116, G04019, doi:10.1029/2011JG001723.Reference
Watts, C.J., Scott, R.L., Garatuza-Payan, J., Rodriguez, J.C., Prueger, J., Kustas, W., and Douglas, M. 2007. Changes in vegetation condition and surface fluxes during NAME 2004. Journal of Climate, 20, 1810-1820.Reference

Fluxnet Proposals Using this Site
CoordinatorTitleCollaboratorsStatus
Andrew JarvisA data-based cross-site evaluation of (optimal) carbon gain and water use strategies as expressed in FLUXNET eddy covariance dataJarvis;Stauch1st Draft ready
Darrel JeneretteVariation of ecosystem metabolic rain response along a 2000 mm rainfall gradientJenerette;Scott;Huxman1st Draft ready
Enrico TomelleriClimatic effects on the inter‐annual variability of net ecosystem fluxes of North America and EuropeTomelleri; Migliavacca; Carvalhais1st Draft ready
Manish VermaUse of FLUXNET data product to evaluate productivity metrics derived from satellite remote sensingRichardson; Verma1st Draft ready
Paul StoyThe effects of vegetation on surface temperature: a bottom-up approach from a global network of eddy covariance flux towersStoy; Katul; Juang; Siqueira; Novick; Williams; Clement; Moncreiff; Lloyd1st Draft ready
Wenping YuanGlobal Comparison of Light Use Efficiency Models for Vegetation Gross Primary ProductionYuan; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiDevelopment of a Physical-Empirical algorithm for global terrestrial latent heat flux based on FLUXNET data set and MODIS productsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Xianglan LiEvaluation of global terrestrial latent heat flux simulations of 45 CMIP5 models using global eddy covariance observationsLi; Chen1st Draft ready
Bo JiangComparison of empirical models for surface daytime net radiation estimationJiang; Wohlfahrt; ZhangManuscript submitted
Christopher WilliamsCarbon Dioxide and Water Flux Responses to Extreme Weather and Climate AnomaliesWilliams; Munger; Hollinger; Stoy; Richardson; Schaefer; Stockli; SchwalmPaper published
Dennis BaldocchiHow Day and Night Sampling Minimizes Autocorrelation between Canopy Photosynthesis and Ecosystem RespirationBaldocchi; SturtevantPaper published
Guillod BenoîtThe impact of evapotranspiration on convective rainfall eventsGuillod; Seneviratne; Buchmann; Orlowsky; Reichstein; Ciais; TeulingPaper published
Jingfeng XiaoLinking Disturbance and Nitrogen Availability to Carbon and Water Cycling: Improved Upscaling of Carbon and Water Fluxes from Towers to Continental and Global ScalesXiao; Ollinger; ChenPaper published
Lucas JonesGlobal mapping of net ecosystem CO2 exchange using integrated satellite optical-IR and microwave remote sensing: Algorithm Development for the SMAP Decadal Survey MissionJones; Kimball; Running; Zhang; YiPaper published
Martin JungIdentifying environmental and biophysical controls of monthly carbon and water fluxesJung; Reichstein; Papale; TomelleriPaper published
Paul StoyEnergy balance closure at global eddy covariance research sites is related to landscape-level surface heterogeneityStoy; IbromPaper published
Philippe CiaisWhat the eddy-covariance flux measurements tell us about prior errors in CO2-flux inversion schemesChevallier; Ciais; Maignan; Wang; ReichsteinPaper published
Sonia SeneviratneMulti-scale land-atmosphere interactionsSeneviratne; Reichstein; Ciais; Buchmann; StockliPaper published
Dario PapaleA new global spatialized estimate of NEP, GPP and TER and analysis of uncertainty and limiting factors using data driven models and eddy covariance measurementsPapale, Reichstein, TomelleriSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Jingfeng XiaoGlobal Patterns and Interannual Variability of Water Use EfficiencyXiao; ChenSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Miguel D. MahechaEffects of hydrometerorological extremes on land-atmosphere fluxesMahecha; Rammig; PapaleSites selected and PIs contacted with 1st figures
Andrew RichardsonExploring relationships among carbon exchange, foliar nitrogen, and canopy albedo at global scalesRichardson; Ollinger; Martin; HollingerStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christian BernhoferAnalyzing long-term FLUXNET measurements for reliable ET values across ecosystems types and across climatic regionsBernhofer; Koestner; Knohl; Lindroth; Grünwald; RiedelStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Christopher R. SchwalmUsing FLUXNET to diagnose climatic variability of the terrestrial carbon sink from 1948 to 2099Schwalm; Jung; Reichstein; PapaleStarted with 1st overview and site selection
Gianluca TramontanaFLUXCOM – an intercomparison study on the estimation of global flux fields from eddy covariance data using empirical up-scaling techniquesReichstein; Papale; Jung; Ryu; Xiao; FisherUnknown
Philippe CiaisEvaluation and estimation of biogeochemical flux model error on multiple time scales based on La Thuile eddy-covariance flux measurementsCiais; PiaoUnknown
Qiang LiuAn Evaluation of GLASS Albedo ProductLiu; Qua; Wang; Liu; Liu; LiangUnknown

These pages show the current information available at http://www.fluxdata.org/ about this tower. If any of this information is wrong or missing, please submit corrections and updates via the form at http://www.fluxdata.org/AncDataUpdate/default.aspx.